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At the sangam of the 3 most sacred rivers of India, Ganges, Saraswati and Yamuna, lies the city of Allahabad. It is the southern city in Uttar Pradesh which was in ancient times known as Kuru and later as the Vats. The city is surrounded by Awadh from its north and northeast, Baghelkhand to its east and southeast, Bundelkhand in its southwest and around its west is Lower Doab.

In terms of geography and culture, Allahabad is located quite strategically. A railway line from east to west divides the city and Old Chowk area is the south of the railway while the Civil lines built by the British is the north. The soil and water of the city and the whole of Doab is considered to be sedimentary. Allahabad is categorized as a low damage risk wind and cyclone region according to the United Nations Development Programme Report.

While geographically Allahabad is at the mouth of Yamuna, a part of Ganga-Yamuna doab culturally it is boundary of Indian West. City has Pratapgarh in its north, Rewa is in south, Kaushambi in its west and Bhadohi in its east.


Under the Koppen climate classification, Allahabad is classified as a city with humid sub-tropical climate. Annual average temperature of the city is 26.1°C and monthly average temperature ranges between 18-29°C. Its highest recorded temperature is 48°C (118.4°F), and its lowest is −2°C (28°F). The city receives 2,961 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight in May.

Allahabad experiences three seasons:

  1. Summer – The climate in summers is hot and dry, the temperature can cross over 40°C. It lasts from April to June. The lowest temperature recorded in the summer is 30°C. Summers face dry spells during which the temperature rises very high towards the extreme.
  2. Monsoon – It is warm and humid during monsoons. It usually starts by early July and ends till September. The highest rainfall in a month is estimated to 13in maximum during August. The rains from Southwest monsoons travel from the Bay of Bengal or Arabian Sea into the Allahabad city contributing to the city’s annual rainfall supply.
  3. Winter – The winters are from December to February. Climate remains cool and dry and the temperature very rarely drops as low as freezing. There can often be dense fog in the city during January which results in hindrances in traffic and travels. Even with dense fog, the city has never seen snowfall.


Allahabad is a part of Ganga-Jamuna Doab on the western region of Indus-Gangetic plains. The city is known for the unique flora and fauna, however, with the increase in humans almost half of these have become extinct and many are at the verge of extinction. The numbers of many bird species have reduced drastically due to the introduction of different mammals and reptiles.

Dove, peacocks, house sparrows, songbirds, parakeets, comb ducks, bulbuls, quails, black partridge and blue jays are some of the most commonly found birds in Allahabad. Winters see a large number of migrating Siberian birds in the sangam and nearby wetlands. City’s common animals are reptiles which are lizards, cobras, kraits and gharials.

The Allahabad Museum, one of four national museums in India, is documenting the flora and fauna of the Ganges and Yamuna.